By Petr Beckmann
The heritage of pi, says the writer, notwithstanding a small a part of the heritage of arithmetic, is however a replicate of the background of guy. Petr Beckmann holds up this replicate, giving the history of the days whilst pi made growth -- and likewise whilst it didn't, simply because technological know-how used to be being stifled through militarism or spiritual fanaticism.
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New regulations for educational institutions were issued for real schools in 1888 and for gymnasia in 1891. However, they had practically no influence on the teaching of mathematics. Several not particularly substantive amendments were added to the 1872 curriculum in 1890. In 1890, for the first time in the history of Russian schools, an explanatory note on teaching methodology was included in all curricula. Also, it was emphasized that, as an exact and abstract science, mathematics should be a means of intellectual development.
This opposition was particularly acute at critical moments in Russian history. Its influence upon the quality of mathematical education was indicated by: (1) the number of students enrolled, (2) the position of mathematics in a general system of education. In the beginning of the century, gymnasia education, on the whole, included aspects of practical (“real”) education. Mathematics occupied the primary position in the schedule of lessons. Six hours per week were allotted to the study of mathematics during the first three (out of four) years.
1913). St. Petersburg. Reports that were read at the Second All-Russia Congress of Mathematics Teachers in Moscow [Doklady, chitannye na 2-m Vserossijskom S’ezde prepodavatelej matematiki v Moskve]. (1915). Moscow. Simonov, R. A. (1974). “Tsifrovye alfavity” i sostoyanie gramotnosti v Drevnej Rusi [“Numerical alphabets” and the state of literacy in Old Rus’]. Matematika v shkole, No. 1. The manual of how a person comes to know numeration of years [Nastavlenie, kak cheloveku poznat’ schilslenie l’et].
A History of Pi by Petr Beckmann