By Hiroshi Shimizu, Takashi Hirasawa (auth.), Volker F. Wendisch (eds.)
Amino Acids Biosynthesis provides the present wisdom of basic in addition to utilized microbiology of amino acids. subject matters mentioned are the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and biochemical legislation, delivery of amino acids and genomics of manufacturing microorganisms. The characterization of the regulate mechanisms of amino acid biosynthesis has printed insights into rules of genetic and biochemical legislation, comparable to transcriptional regulators and a brand new type of regulatory parts, the riboswitch.
The quantity extra offers with the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biotechnological construction of amino acids to be used as prescription drugs and, relatively, as nutrition and feed ingredients. complete experiences are given of modern achievements to allow or enhance construction of amino acids and dipeptides by way of fermentation and enzyme catalysis. the following, the actual concentration is on metabolic engineering, the rational development of metabolic capabilities utilizing recombinant DNA technology.
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Extra resources for Amino Acid Biosynthesis ~ Pathways, Regulation and Metabolic Engineering
2001) characterized the importance of the anaplerotic pathways of C. glutamicum. C. glutamicum possesses both phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) and pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) as anaplerotic enzymes for growth. To analyze the significance of PYC for the glutamate production by this organism, the wild-type pyc gene, encoding PYC, was used for the construction of deﬁned pyc-inactive and pyc-overexpressing strains, and the synthesis of glutamate and other amino acids was tested. In a detergent-dependent glutamate production assay, the pyc-overexpressing strain showed more than sevenfold higher glutamate production, and the pyc-deﬁcient strain about twofold lower, than the wild-type under the detergent-inducing conditions.
Glutamicum and C. efﬁciens, respectively Furthermore, to clarify the enzyme-to-substrate afﬁnity, the Michaelis– Menten constants (Km ) of the enzymes around 2-oxoglutarate: ICDH, GDH, and ODHC were determined on the basis of Lineweaver–Burk plots. Results are summarized in Table 2. In both coryneform bacteria, the Km values of GDH were 50- to 100-fold higher than those of ICDH and ODHC. Therefore, Production of Glutamate and Glutamate-Related Amino Acids 23 Table 2 Comparison of Km values (mM) of enzymes around 2-oxoglutarate Enzyme C.
Part XII. Relationship between the kind of phospholipids and their fatty acid composition in the mechanism of extracellular accumulation of l-glutamate. Agric Biol Chem 34:1136–1141 Shibukawa M, Ohsawa T (1966) l-Glutamic acid fermentation with molasses. Part XII. Effect of saturated-unsaturated fatty acid ratio in the cell membrane fraction on the extracellular accumulation of l-glutamate. Agric Biol Chem 30:750–758 Shiio I, Otsuka S, Katsuya N (1963) Cellular permeability and extracellular formation of glutamic acid in Brevibacterium ﬂavum.
Amino Acid Biosynthesis ~ Pathways, Regulation and Metabolic Engineering by Hiroshi Shimizu, Takashi Hirasawa (auth.), Volker F. Wendisch (eds.)