By Stephen Walker
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Extra resources for Animal Learning: An Introduction
1972) and Carew and Kandel (1973) demonstrated that, with shorter inter-trial intervals, repeated periods of habituation and recovery do indeed produce faster habituation in the later blocks, in Aplysia, and that after this habituation is still very fast 24 hours later. Thus an appreciable range of behavioural phenomena characteristic of habituation is obtainable in Aplysia, and the essential features can be 49 observed even when the abdominal ganglion is dissected out from the animal for greater ease of electrical recording.
The conclusion of Lecture I, Conditioned Reflexes, Pavlov (1927) Pavlov’s theories It is a great advantage to be able to discuss the phenomena of habituation with a set of common descriptive terms — to ask how fast the response decrement is, how long the recovery takes, and which alternative stimuli result in dishabituation — even though it is quite inescapable that the mechanisms which cause the phenomena may be as different as the knee jerk and visual pattern recognition. In the same way, it is often useful to describe the phenomena of Pavlovian, or classical, conditioning, as if they were the result of a single set of processes.
In animals the functional aspects of orienting responses are often obvious, since the ears as well as the eyes may scan the environment, and sniffing in mammals is usually an active process. Frequently the whole posture of an animal betrays the detection of a novel stimulus, and many species have well53 defined routines of ‘inspective’ or ‘inquisitive’ exploratory behaviour (Berlyne, 1960; Hinde, 1970; Erlich, 1970; Menzel and Juno, 1985). In these, the initial reactions to a novel stimulus and contrasting indifference given to familiar objects, both suggest that the process of habituation involves the use of stored representations or ‘neuronal models’ of perceived events, rather than merely the depression of activity at certain synapses.
Animal Learning: An Introduction by Stephen Walker