By Liang Cheng, Gregory T. MacLennan
A unmarried resource of knowledge approximately pathologic lesions of the adrenal, the urinary tract, and the male genital approach, minimizing the necessity to seek advice various texts of constrained scope, this booklet includes gross pictures and photomicrographs of almost each pathologic entity, and variations of these entities. The e-book is lavishly illustrated with pictures observed by way of textual content that explains the visible pictures, highlighting key diagnostic good points and offering short yet priceless discussions of the differential diagnosis.
This booklet is designed for training pathologists and pathologists in education in addition to urologists, GU radiologists, GU radiation oncologists, and GU clinical oncologists.
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Antibodies against E6 or E7 are available but their use is mostly restricted to in vitro assays including the direct visualization in cells or tissues (immunohistochemistry) or in protein extracts (Western blots and immune precipitation assays), not always with consistent results. HPV cannot be propagated in tissue culture and hence in most cases its accurate identification relies on molecular biology techniques. With a double-stranded DNA genome of about 8,000 base pairs (bp) in length and a well-known physical structure and gene organization, tests of choice for detecting HPV from clinical specimens are based on nucleic acid probe technology.
PCR can theoretically produce one 26 2 2 Laboratory Methods for Detection of Human Papillomavirus Infection billion copies from a single double-stranded DNA molecule after 30 cycles of amplification. Therefore, care must be taken to avoid false-positive results derived from cross-contaminated specimens or reagents. Several procedures are available to avoid this potential problem in using PCR protocols for HPV DNA detection. The most widely used PCR protocols employ consensus primers that are directed to a highly conserved region of the L1 gene, since they are potentially capable of detecting all mucosal HPV types.
A variety of signaldetection procedures are available that can further increase the sensitivity of these assays. The only procedure potentially capable of recognizing all HPV types and variants present in the biological specimen is DNA sequencing of the viral genome, either after cloning into plasmids or by direct sequencing of a polymerase chain A. Rosenblatt, H. G. 1007/978-3-540-70974-9-2, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009 23 24 2 2 Laboratory Methods for Detection of Human Papillomavirus Infection reaction (PCR) fragment.
Atlas of Genitourinary Pathology by Liang Cheng, Gregory T. MacLennan